The sea peoples from cuneiform tablets to carbon dating

However, the lack of a stratified radiocarbon-based archaeology for the Sea People event has led to a floating historical chronology derived from a variety of sources spanning dispersed areas.Here, we report a stratified radiocarbon-based archaeology with anchor points in ancient epigraphic-literary sources, Hittite-Levantine-Egyptian kings and astronomical observations to precisely date the Sea People event.Written evidences relate a weakening of central administrations [2], an erosion of political powers [4,5], and a widespread food shortage [68] underpinned by devastating drought [9,10].This sequence of high-magnitude events led to the Sea People event and to the collapse of the ancient Mediterranean world around 1200 BC [1,3,5].The destruction layer contains remains of conflicts (bronze arrowheads scattered around the town, fallen walls, burnt houses), ash from the conflagration of houses, and chronologically well-constrained ceramic assemblages fragmented by the collapse of the town. Der astronomisch-hepatoskopische Bericht KTU 1.78 (RS 12.061).

The late 13th century BC was a time of uncertainty and conflict for peoples and polities of the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean [1,2,3].By confronting historical and science-based archaeology, the data offer the first firm chronology for this key period in human society. The harbour town Gibala, Ugarit Kingdom Sample collection for radiocarbon (14C) dating of the Sea People event was performed at the harbour town Gibala [17,18,19], a thriving Levantine trade center located at the southernmost edge of the powerful Ugarit kingdom [20,21]. The Sea Peoples symbolize the last step of a long and complex spiral of decline in the ancient Mediterranean world [2,3,4,5].Cuneiform tablets from Ugarit provide an impressive glimpse of the frantic preparations which the city and her neighbours pursued, in vain, to ward against the invasions [2].

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